Daniel Dudley, 28, is a busy man. The apprentice doctor is an active contestant, an amateur chef (now he is learning Indian cuisine) and a proud “father” of a carnivorous rabbit who chronicles Instagram, Bunnyzaddy handle. It is also, at least in part, responsible for the establishment of new male contraceptives.
For the past five years, Dudley volunteered for three separate clinical trials of three contraceptive methods. He took the pill for a month, rubbed a hormonal gel on his chest and injected hormones into his left cheek. If all roads are available today, the injection will be chosen for lasting comfort. “I will use it completely,” he says.
Dadley, who is currently working on a long-term relationship, wants to play a role in increasing contraceptive options for men and is bearing the burden of preventing pregnancy for women. “This is an injustice,” says a medical student at the University of Washington. “There has been a lot of money and effort to reduce men’s fertility safely and effectively.”
Women are now most responsible for contraception, with about 12 birth control options, including long-term solutions such as IUDs, herpes, and short-term strategies such as diaphragm and vaginal ring. For decades, men had only two: condoms (with almost 20% failure rate) and vasectomy, which is considered largely irreversible and involves simple surgery. There have been no new commercial contraceptives for men in several decades.
This may change, thanks to new clinical trials and perceptions of gender problems. Today there is a renewed account on the negotiations surrounding the dormitory, including the late talks on approval. Scientists hope it is time to change the imbalance of current contraceptives and that they are launching clinical trials on different routes, including cereals and jelly this year, in the hope that they will attract pharmaceutical companies with promising results. Industry analysts believe there is money to be earned. If a new method of male contraception is approved in the next five years, the market is expected to be around one billion dollars by 2024 and grow at a rate of 6% over the next ten years, according to Global Market Insights. Finally, there is an urgent need: only in the United States, 45% of pregnancies are not planned, however, the public health strategy to prevent them largely ignores 50% of the population.
The arrival of the female pill, in 1960, began a sexual revolution, which helped women solve the problem. His first appearance in the United States market also changed the community in unexpected ways. The enrollment rate was 20 percent higher among American women who were able to access legal contraceptives at the age of 18 in 1970 than women who could not, and one-third of women’s wage gains since the 1970s. 1960 were due to access to oral contraceptives. According to the family planning report.
However, feminine methods have not solved the problem of unplanned pregnancy in the world: in the United States, studies suggest that it is common for women to cross paths with several types of contraceptive methods before starting work on a job that work While women often struggle with birth control, the burden of contraception always falls on them, with 62% of all women of reproductive age using contraception. Even when it comes to permanent measures, female sterilization remains a much more common procedure than vasectomies in the US. UU
In 2018, the Danish study found that women’s income drops dramatically after the birth of their first child, a fall that men do not suffer, which ultimately causes women to get sick. 20% less than men throughout their careers.
Adrian Toon, 25, who is studying to become a family nurse at Columbia University and now returns to Dadley, says women may find it difficult to give up some control over contraception, but they can create more balance in the relationship. “Women are used to this burden, and a social society thinks it is our responsibility,” he says. “But I think women are ready to get more protection.” Initially she says she is nervous about Dadley’s tests, but believes it is “incredible” to volunteer.
Previous surveys indicate that at least 50 percent of men will use male contraceptives, although men in stable relationships are more open to taking daily contraceptive pills. While some scientists are exploring hormonal options for men that inhibit the production of testosterone and sperm, other researchers are exploring non-hormonal options. In India, injections that prevent sperm from escaping the testicles are pending government approval. In the United States, a non-profit organization initially works with similar approaches.
Recently, the Dodd Worm Test method showed: Dudley researchers and 82 men promised another drug called dimetandrolone undecanoate, or DMAU, that reduces certain hormones such as testosterone that are required to produce sperm. The small study found that oral contraceptives appeared to be safe and that men who had the highest dose could suppress the hormones needed for sperm development at very low levels without serious side effects.
Scientists working on the DMAU trial at the University of Washington, the Biomedical Research Institute of Los Angeles and elsewhere have worked in this field for years and claim that today there is a welcome and unprecedented energy in their research. “We have a lot of positive momentum at this time,” says the study’s author, Dr. Stephanie Big, head of the Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology at the University of Washington School of Medicine. “I think this area may be in a different place because the public is expressing great interest, there are social changes that seem different 15 years ago.”
Like Dudley, Christopher Thordarson, a California native who describes himself as “Bum Beach,” currently studies microbiology at the University of Washington and has volunteered in several clinical trials of male contraceptive methods. In late January, Thordarsson, 22, received an injection containing DMAU in his right abdomen to reduce his sperm count to almost insignificant, unless he received a placebo. He was told that this method would not be used as a contraceptive in this case. “I felt like I was going to the bee,” he says.
Thordarson and Dudley agree that the pain caused by the needle is a burden that deserves the burden if it means that they are doing their part in the development of the science behind male contraceptives and, in their opinion, they are wrong. “I believe that blaming men and women for preventing unwanted pregnancies will alleviate much of the hatred and insanity of the women they face,” says Thordarsson.
In a study on Dadley’s birth control pills, men experienced testosterone declines at levels that classify their bodies as medically enriched. Men are not exposed to serious side effects, because DMAU mimics testosterone throughout the body. Eight of the men who took the medication reported decreased libido and five men took acne medications. The researchers plan to test the effects of the pill on another 100 men before moving on to a longer experience with couples.
Meanwhile, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Population Council, with the help of many universities around the world, plan to launch one of the largest contraceptive trials for men so far in June. to use contraceptives in gel. The search for the gel method moves faster than the pill, largely because when taken orally, testosterone (used in male contraceptives) eliminates the body quickly. The researchers say that the gel is absorbed into the skin and stays on the skin. The longest bloodstream. Of the versions of pills so far.
A gelatin experiment will record more than 400 pairs in six countries and will ask men to rub the gel on the upper arms and shoulders once a day. The gel contains a synthetic progestin called Nestorone, which prevents the testes from producing enough testosterone to produce sperm, and artificial testosterone, which will treat subsequent hormonal imbalances. Once men’s sperm reach a sufficiently low level, men and women will agree to rely on gel alone in birth control. The study sites, including the lab page, begin the recruitment process and the pilot plan will begin this summer.
The condom, in some form, has existed since the time of the Emperor of Rome, despite the appearance of the first descriptions recorded in the sixteenth century. The condom evolved from the intestine of the animal to the latex and gained great attraction in times of war. The German army began supplying male condoms during the First World War to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. By 1918, condoms were coded in the United States to prevent disease.
The choice of other pups for men, namely vasectomy, was first described in the 19th century as a dog procedure, before becoming a way of treating the enlarged prostate or as an alternative to castration. During the first half of the 20th century, vasectomies were used as part of prophylaxis programs supported by the state in which prison offenders were forced to perform vasectomies. By the second half of the century, men had begun the process selectively, and today it is estimated that between 175,000 and 550,000 hysterectomies are performed each year in the United States.
Research on male contraceptives began in clinical trials in the early 1970s, when US governments UU And China started studies on sperm suppressant compounds that can be taken with the pill. Chinese researchers have tested gossypol, a chemical derived from the seeds of cotton plants, in more than 8,000 men. Gosipol pills reduced the amount of sperm per day for men, but some men did not return to their usual fertility levels after stopping taking pimples, and many drops experienced potassium. Finally, concerns about side effects stopped.
Also in the early 1970s, researchers supported by the NIH began testing male male contraception options. Preliminary studies have shown that with the right combination of testosterone and artificial progestin hormone, the number of sperm in a man can be significantly reduced.
In the early 2000s, pharmaceutical companies Organ and Schirng collaborated on a clinical trial: about 300 men received injections of progesterone and testosterone. While men had side effects such as acne, weight gain and mood problems, they also suffered dramatically in the number of sperm.
But after Bayer Pharmaceuticals acquired Schering in 2006 (Bayer, one of the leading providers of birth control for women, with brands such as Myrna and Yaz), the two companies closed their research programs. “Once the acquisition is complete, Bayer has conducted a comprehensive review of the portfolio to ensure that the company invests resources in therapeutic areas that will provide the greatest benefits to patients and will ensure that the company functions responsibly.” Courtney Malone, deputy director of US Products Product Communications for Bayer, says in an email to TIME. “Ultimately, the decision was made to stop contraceptive research on men, and we currently have no plans to continue working in the future.”
Another old company called Sterling Drug tested a repressive compound called WIN 18,446. As Bloomberg Business Week reported, the researchers found that their method did not mix well with alcohol. A prisoner in the Oregon state prison, who participated in the trial, arrested an illegal Scot and became seriously ill. Few scientists maintain this research on a small scale, but lack funds from pharmaceutical companies or government grants.
For regulators, the future of male contraceptives can become a question: how much physical risk should men have? From an organization’s point of view, scientists say it’s hard to justify, even if it’s a hard or chronic opinion, that a healthy person should take a medication and deal with its side effects, to avoid any result from another person .
The results of an experiment published in 2016 illustrate the problem. The study, which began 10 years ago, was one of the largest trials of contraception in men and was launched in 10 sites around the world with the support of groups such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Program. United for Development (UNDP). On paper, the results showed that contraception, which used a combination of long-acting testosterone and the female hormone progesterone, was an early success. The 320 men agreed, with the consent of their female partners, to undergo injections every two months of hormones designed to significantly reduce the number of sperm, and then used this method as a basic form of birth control. The results were staggering: hormone injections for men were 96% effective in sperm suppression and contraception, and the vast majority of men said they would use them if they hit the market (most likely in the form of pills).